Thursday, December 9, 2021

Freedom - A True Blessing From God

Greetings Everyone! It's always a great pleasure and an honor to be with you! Welcome our friends in Germany, Canada, Argentina, Romania, and all around the world - as well as our friends throughout the United States of America! Welcome to the Church of Jesus Christ Online Ministries, and I'm Leonard V. Johnson.

To refresh my memory and in the preparation for this message today I studied up, briefly, an outline of U.S. history, along with many of the lives of our earliest presidents, as well as doing something I have never done before – the reading of the whole of the Declaration of Independence – which lists the many cases of abuse by King George III. Also, I went and read some of the Constitution of the United States of America as well as re-reading some of the histories of our national seal and the American flag.
  1. The Freedom of Religion.
  2. The Freedom of Speech.
  3. The Freedom of Assembly.
  4. The Freedom of the Press.
The most precious of freedoms.

Now, if you have never read the Shanghai Sun, as well as the controlled news source by the Peoples Communist Party – The People’s Daily – out of China, I highly suggest you download those and read them.

The very freedom of religion in China is a very tenuous thing and barely legal in China today. In Mainland China, the freedom of religion is provided for in the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, yet with a caveat: the government controls what it calls “normal religious activity,” defined in practice as activities that take place within government-sanctioned religious organizations and registered places of worship. There is what is called the Three-Self Patriotic Movement of the Protestant churches in China. The Three-Self Church (TSPM) - the government-sanctioned “patriotic” Christian organization in China, in combination with the China Christian Council as the lianghui. They form the ONLY state-sanctioned “registered” Protestant church in mainland China. All other Protestant denominations are illegal. 1

Truly, wherever you look around the world, the freedoms that the United States of America has, are not enjoyed.

For this message today I want you to understand a little about why our great seal of the United States of America has so many interesting replicates of THIRTEEN.

Let’s turn to the 48th chapter of the Book of Genesis – when elderly Jacob (whose name would be later changed to Israel) was about to die – now recall that Joseph’s brothers - Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Zebulun, Issachar, Dan. Gad, Asher, Naphtali, and Benjamin – sold him into slavery, and he ended up in Egypt. Truly allowed by God to provide a place for the nation of Israel to grow up and to eventually be delivered by Moses out of slavery and to inherit the promised land.

Now Jacob is elderly and about to die – notice verse 8

“Then Israel saw Joseph’s sons, and said, ‘Who are these?’ 9) Joseph said to his father, ‘They are my sons, whom God has given me in this place.’ And he said, ‘Please bring them to me, and I will bless them.’”

Jacob (whose name was later changed to Israel) was almost completely blind – Verse 10 – “Now the eyes of Israel were dim with age, so that he could not see. Then Joseph brought them near him, and he kissed them and embraced them.”

Verse 11 – “And Israel said to Joseph, ‘I had not thought to see your face; …”

Recall how very distraught he was when his sons had brought unto him the coat of many colors dipped in blood, and he thought that his favorite son had been killed.

“ … but in fact, God has also shown me your offspring!”

Verse 12 – “So Joseph brought them from beside his knees, and he bowed down with his face to the earth. 13) And Joseph took them both, Ephraim with his right hand, and Manasseh with his left hand toward Israel’s right hand, …”

Because Joseph wanted his firstborn – Manasseh – in his left hand to be near his father’s right hand, to receive that righthanded blessing, which would pass on the blessings which he knew he had inherited from his father, and his father had inherited from Abraham. Now, let us always remember that Abraham’s original name was Abram – his name being changed to Abraham cf. Genesis 17:3-8 – because he was to become “a father of many nations.”

“ … and brought them near him. 14) Then Israel stretched out his right hand and laid it on Ephraim’s head, who was the younger, and his left hand on Manasseh’s head, guiding his hands knowingly, for Manasseh was the firstborn.”

Verse 15 – “And he blessed Joseph, and said:

‘God, before whom my father’s Abraham and Isaac walked, The God who has fed me all my life long to this day, 16) The angel [the Hebrew word used is mal ‘āk, meaning messenger, an angel] who has redeemed me from all evil, Bless the lads; LET MY NAME BE NAMED UPON THEM, …’”

This statement (which I posted in bold) is an extremely IMPORTANT statement to understand the Holy Bible! To understand all of 1st Kings, 2nd Kings, 1st Chronicles, and 2nd Chronicles. That the name ISRAEL and the HOUSE OF ISRAEL was to be placed upon Ephraim and Manasseh. Not on Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Zebulun, Issachar, Dan. Gad, Asher, Naphtali, and Benjamin – only upon Ephraim and Manasseh! They would be called ISRAEL and the HOUSE OF ISRAEL.

“ … ‘And the name of my father’s Abraham and Isaac; And let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth.’”

Now, when we look back through our history we do indeed find that the very words “Saca,” “Saka,” “Sacae,” and “Saxon” and so forth, are derived from the meaning “sons of Isaac.” 2

Verse 17 – “Now when Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand on the head of Ephraim, it displeased him; so he took hold of his father’s hand to remove it from Ephraim’s head to Manasseh’s head.”

Verse 19 – “But his father refused and said, ‘I know my son, I know. He also shall become a people, and he also shall be great; but truly his younger brother shall be greater than he, and his descendants shall become A MULTITUDE OF NATIONS.’”

Now, I’m sure many who support, follow, and read our articles and listen to our sermons are familiar with the fact that Minister Michael Garrett wrote a series of articles entitled “God’s Promises To Abraham” which covers a greater majority of this today. But, where else would one look for brother nations, who look alike, who act alike, and it’s obvious who has the same genealogical background, where one brother would be a “multitude of nations,” and the other brother a “great” single nation!? It doesn’t exist – except in the case of the United States of America and the British Commonwealth of Nations.

Now, let us think and let us acknowledge that if there had been no Abraham and his descendants there never would have been a world that has progressed to the point we have today.

Verse 20 – “So he blessed them that day, saying, ‘By you Israel will bless, saying, ‘May God make you as Ephraim and as Manasseh!’ And thus he set Ephraim before Manasseh.”

The other day I played the patriotic song “My Country Tis of Thee,” and began weeping like a child. The melody used is the same as that of the national anthem of the United Kingdom – “God Save the Queen.” Alternatively, “God Save the King”
God Save our King
Long live our noble king,
God save the king.
Send him victorious,
Happy and glorious,
Long to reign over us,
God save the king!
And, of course, I couldn’t help but think of our soon coming King of kings and Lord of lords – the living Jesus Christ!

Now, when that national anthem was sung by the estimated 8.5 million patriotic besieged Londoners during World War II who were being carpet-bombed out of existence by Adolf Hitler’s Luftwaffe and their V-2 rockets, it certainly would have been quite stirring! Yet, we all should stop and think just what this world would have been like had there never been a British Empire.

Now, in this 21st-century world, we have the Woke Culture along with the Cancel Culture spreading through our schools like out-of-control cancer. And it truly began back in the 1960s, when they began instead of really teaching the kind of history they should, they began attacking and demeaning the United States of America along with our Founding Fathers, so that children going through history class in this generation learn that George Washington was a slave owner, Thomas Jefferson had a black mistress, and they began learning a type of history which caused them to reject, resent, and hate the Anglo-Saxon Americans. And, even my wife has commented to me many a time – that colonization was a terrible thing. So, a lot of our peoples today are interpreting American history in the eyes of colonization or the overwhelming Independence Movement in Puerto Rico. Or they look at America exploiting our territories leading to their higher poverty rates. But, in fact, had it not been for the Magna Carta and King John of England agreeing to sign that royal charter of rights – truly the very beginning of English law – then the very conceptual ideas of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America in the drafting of the Declaration of Independence along with her Constitution, they would NEVER have had the concept “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”


Now, in reality, that concept is not in the minds of hundreds of the leaders within the nations of this earth. And it certainly is not practiced within those nations either.

Think about this… What would India be like today had it not been for England!? Well, for one thing, the burning of wives on the funeral pyres of their husbands, called widow-burning, commonly known as sati (“suttee” in English) – as it had been practiced in India since the late fourth century B.C. – was banned by England in the late 1800s. 3 But, certainly still exists today in Hindu India! 4 Today, the Republic of India – which on the 15th August 1947, India officially ceased to exist as a British Colony – has an overcrowded population of over 1.32 billion – in a nation where 25% of the population is already living on less than US$2 a day 5 - along with having the worst air pollution in the world! Of the 30 most polluted cities in the world, 21 were in India in 2019. 6 And, still to this day, 15% of the total population in India defecates in the open in India, according to WASH report 2021! 7 And then they bathe in the river!? IN THE 21st CENTURY! In their Hindu society – their cow worshiping society, their Brahma cows – their holy cattle!

Let us turn to the 49th chapter of the Book of Genesis. This certainly gives us a bit of a clue as to where these nations are today.

Verse 1 – “And Jacob [ISRAEL] called his sons and said, ‘Gather together, that I may tell you what shall befall you IN THE LAST DAYS:

Verse 3 – “’ Reuben, you are my firstborn, My might and the beginning of my strength, The excellency of dignity and the excellency of power.’”

Verse 4 – “’ Unstable as water, you shall not excel, Because you went up to your father’s bed; Then you defiled it – He went up to my couch.’”

And, this is all that is said concerning Reuben.

Friends, it can be shown that Reuben is FRANCE.

If you look throughout the history of France, you see how many governments there have been in France 8 – of the incredible instability of that nation, along with their proclivity – which as far back as the puritanical days of the 1800s up to the 1920s when the United States of America was drastically different – certainly one nation which was prone for pornography, and prostitution, was France. By 1810, Paris alone had 180 officially approved brothels. The 19th century was also the time of several fabulously rich courtesans in Paris. They have been very unstable, yet “excellency of dignity” – certainly with the French Emperors and even with the renowned Charles de Gaulle. The “excellency of power” – France has been a very powerful nation, and had spent a higher percentage of its GNP from 1918 to 1935 on its military than other great powers and the government had added a large rearmament effort in 1936. The German Army was certainly motorized; ten percent of their army was motorized in 1940 but they could muster only 120,000 vehicles, compared with the 300,000 of the French Army. 9 Yet, Germany defeated France! Because the French did not have the will – and I certainly have several books in my library, like The D-Day Companion by Jane Penrose which does mention the internal tensions of the Allies, and of how the British and American High Command remained suspicious of General de Gaulle. 10

In August 1944 Sir Winston Churchill said of France:
“For forty years I have been a consistent friend of France and her brave army; all my life I have been grateful for the contribution France has made to the culture and glory of Europe, and above all for the sense of personal liberty and the rights of man which has radiated from the soul of France. But these are not matters of sentiment or personal feeling. It is one of the main interests of Great Britain that a friendly France should regain and hold her place among the major powers of Europe and the world. Show me a moment when I swerved from this conception, and you will show me a moment when I have been wrong … 

I had many differences with General de Gaulle, but I have never forgotten, and can never forget, that he stood forth as the first eminent Frenchman to face the common foe in what seemed to be the hour of ruin of his country, and possibly of ours; and it is only fair and becoming that he should stand first and foremost in the days when France shall again be raised, and raise herself, to her rightful place among the great Powers of Europe and of the world.”
Verse 5 – “’ Simeon and Levi are brothers; …’” – and they were the House of Judah. They are from the same mother. And certainly Simeon and Levi cannot be told apart today – we would call them Jews.

“ … ‘Instruments of cruelty are in their dwelling place. 6) Let not my soul enter their council; Let not my honor be united to their assembly; For in their anger they slew a man, And in their self-will they hamstrung an ox. 7) Cursed be their anger, for it is fierce; And their wrath, for it is cruel! [cf. ch. 34:26] I will divide them in Jacob And scatter them in Israel.’”

Well, this certainly took place – Simeon and Levi had no inheritance, as did Ephraim and Manasseh. It’s most fascinating that Manasseh actually had two sections of land north of Benjamin and Judah – East and West. And later on, we come to see that there was a Northumbria and a Southumbria, along with the American Civil War with its Mason-Dixon Line and the difference between Northerners and Southerners in the United States of America which is Manasseh. I certainly find all of this most fascinating! So, Simeon and Levi were not given an inheritance in that land.

Verse 8 – “’ Judah, you are he whom your brothers shall praise; Your hand shall be on the neck of your enemies; Your father’s children shall bow down before you. 9) Judah is a lion’s whelp; From the prey, my son, you have gone up. He bows down, he lies down as a lion; And as a lion, who shall rouse him?’”

Verse 10 – The scepter shall not depart from Judah [speaking here of the Jews], Nor a lawgiver from between his feet, Until Shiloh comes; …’”

And, this is the first time in God’s living word of an individual named Shiloh who was to be the Savior of all mankind – the living Jesus Christ!

Verse 13 – “’ Zebulun shall dwell by the haven of the sea; He shall become a haven for ships, …’”

Zebulun being HOLLAND.

Now, the Port of Rotterdam in South Holland is the largest seaport in Europe and the world's largest seaport outside of East Asia. From 1962 until 2004, it was the world's busiest port by annual cargo tonnage. 11 There is also the Port of Amsterdam in North Holland. It is the 4th busiest port in Europe by metric tonnes of cargo. Today, the port is the second-largest port in the Netherlands. 12 Holland is and has been, a great seafaring nation.

“ … ‘And his border shall adjoin Sidon.’”

Verse 14 – “’ Issachar is a strong donkey, Lying down between two burdens.’”

Verse 15 – “’ He saw that rest was good, And that the land was pleasant; He bowed his shoulder to bear a burden, And became a band of slaves.’”

Issachar is FINLAND.

In doing just a little research about Finland, we come to see that in the 18th-century wars between Sweden and Russia twice led to the occupation of Finland by Russian forces. 13 For the greater majority of Finland’s history they have been overrun and been “slaves” to other nations. And even though the Finnish withstood Russia in the early part of World War II, they lost nearly 10 percent of their territory, including their fourth-largest city, Viipuri.

Now, it’s very interesting when we come to Dan. In verse 16 of the Book of Genesis chapter 49 – 

“’ Dan shall judge his people As one of the tribes of Israel. 17) Dan shall be a serpent by the way, A viper by the path, That bites the horse’s heels So that its rider shall fall backward. I have waited for your salvation, O LORD!’”

Dan being IRELAND.

And Dan is omitted from the 144,000! Now, there are twelve tribes mentioned in the 144,000. Joseph is mentioned (that being Ephraim and Manasseh). And, there are 12,000 from each of those twelve, except Dan. How many tribes altogether!? THIRTEEN.

In my studies, I came across the Great Famine, also known as the Irish Potato Famine – a period of mass starvation and disease in Ireland from 1845 to 1852. At least a million people are thought to have immigrated as a result of the famine, mainly to North America. 14 After the massive influx of Irish immigrants in the 1850s, many found themselves working as police officers and firefighters. During the 1900s, five out of six New York police officers and nearly half of New York City's law enforcement officers were of Irish origin and descent. 15 The Irish immigrants wanted to be judges, lawyers, and policemen – “Dan shall judge his people As one of the tribes of Israel.”

“I have waited for your salvation, O LORD!” – well, you look at the bitter hatred between the Irish and the British, who are related! The bitterness which even exists TODAY! Now, according to a 2016 census, 78.3 percent of the population of Ireland identify as Catholic. The second-largest consider themselves as Anglican – and it is a seething cauldron of absolute hatred.

Could it be that there is coming a time when Ireland will be a part of the prophesied United States of Europe!? Also, were you aware that Ireland was neutral during World War II!? – and had maintained a public stance of neutrality to the end, by refusing to close the German and Japanese Legations, and the Taoiseach (the prime minister and head of the government) actually signed the book of condolence on Hitler’s death!?

Verse 19 – “’ Gad, a troop shall tramp upon him, But he shall triumph at last.”

A good possibility this being SWITZERLAND.

Verse 20 – “’ Bread from Asher shall be rich, And he shall yield royal dainties.’”

A good possibility this being BELGIUM.

There truly are some of the most intricate things you could find that grace their palaces – i.e. Belgian tapestries, lace, and cut glass – also an interesting fact, NATO headquarters are located in Brussels, Belgium – truly a world capital.

Verse 21 – “’Naphtali is a deer let loose; He uses beautiful words.’”

A good possibility this being SWEDEN.

We can certainly find it most interesting, and I certainly do, that the one nation which brought about a man by the name of Alfred Nobel, who not only discovered that when nitroglycerin was incorporated in an absorbent inert substance it became safer and more convenient to handle – hence “dynamite.” But then, after reading a bogus obituary of himself as a war profiteer, Nobel was inspired to bequeath his fortune to the Nobel Prize institution, which would annually recognize those who “conferred the greatest benefit to mankind.” And, certainly, if anyone gives “beautiful words,” it would be Sweden in the form of the Nobel Peace Prize.

Verse 22 – “’ Joseph is a fruitful bough, …’” – now Joseph is Ephraim and Manasseh. The United Kingdom and her Commonwealth of Nations and the United States of America. Now, here, let us read the beautifully poetic words which the LORD our God would heap blessings upon Ephraim and Manasseh!

“ … ‘A fruitful bough by a well; His branches run over the wall. …’” – ever-growing!

Verse 23 – “’ The archers have bitterly grieved him, Shot at him and hated him. 24) But his bow remained in strength, And the arms of his hands were made strong By the hands of the Mighty God of Jacob (From there is the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel), …’”

This is a most interesting and fascinating reference here – ‘the Stone of Israel.’ The Capstone, the Chief Cornerstone. What kind of structure is it where the capstone and the chief cornerstone are all one stone!? Now, I’ve mentioned this many times, and we can certainly go to the Book of Revelation for reference –

The Book of Revelation chapter 21

Verse 16 – “The city is laid out as a square; its length is as great as its breadth. And he measured the city with the reed: twelve thousand furlongs. Its length, breadth, and height are equal.”

Which is measured roughly 1,377 square miles! There are roughly only two shapes with measurements where “its length, breadth, and height are equal.” One is a square, and the other a pyramid.

It’s also most interesting to us that the capstone on the Great Pyramid of Giza is missing! - cf. Isaiah 19:19-20.

Returning back to the Book of Genesis chapter 49

Verse 25 – “’ By the God of your father who will help you, And by the Almighty who will bless you With blessings of heaven above [speaking of weather here], Blessings of the deep that lies beneath [speaking of minerals and natural resources, i.e. oil], Blessings of the breasts and of the womb [speaking about life expectancy and physical health].’”

Verse 26 – “’ The blessings of your father Have excelled the blessings of my ancestors, Up to the utmost bound of the everlasting hills.’” – truly, in every direction you look!

Now, this next part we will read from the New English Bible because it has a proper translation here –

“ … ‘They shall be on the head of Joseph, on the brow of THE PRINCE AMONG his brothers.’”

Verse 27 – “’ Benjamin is a ravenous wolf; In the morning he shall devour the prey, And at night he shall divide the spoil.’”

A good possibility is this being NORWAY.

Verse 28 – ‘All these are the twelve tribes of Israel, …’”

And, so you see that Joseph is one of them, and when you count them there are twelve. But, when you add Ephraim and Manasseh, they are THIRTEEN.

I find it most interesting that the United States of America started with THIRTEEN colonies! On the backside of a United States dollar, on the Great Seal, behind the eagle is a cloud. But, inside the glory of the cloud are THIRTEEN stars. They represent the thirteen original colonies.

Now the little banner which is in the eagle’s beak reads E PLURIBUS UNUM – which means “out of many, one.” And, if we count the letters we come to THIRTEEN. Also, there are exactly THIRTEEN red and white bars on the shield. Also, in the eagle’s right talon is an olive branch that has exactly THIRTEEN leaves, and in his left talon, the eagle is holding exactly THIRTEEN arrows. Now, on the reverse side of the Great Seal are the words ANNUIT COEPTIS – which means “God has approved our undertakings.” Again, if we count the number of letters, there are THIRTEEN. There is also a pyramid with an eye above it, which symbolizes the Spirit of God which sees throughout all the world – and a missing capstone, which is to come back with shouts of “’ Grace, grace to it!’” – Zechariah 4:7. And, if we were to count the courses of stone of the pyramid, there are THIRTEEN courses.

Now, my friends, there are grave conspiracy theories to all of this – yet there are logical reasons for the symbolism of all the THIRTEENS. And I find it most fascinating!

Also, something which is interesting – there are popular phrases which use THIRTEEN.

As I had said earlier, I have briefly studied many of the lives of our early US presidents, and I’d like to mention John Adams. He was, of course, one of the Founding Fathers of our nation along with being the second president of the United States. Now, I have seen several recent documentaries on the telly regarding John Adams. I’ve also seen biographies of Thomas Jefferson’s life – which is most fascinating indeed! He was the one who – basically – wrote the Declaration of Independence. Now, all these men that signed this important document truly pledged their lives to bring to birth a great nation along with the concepts of these freedoms we’re talking about.

Now, the Federalists introduced, and the Congress passed, a series of laws collectively referred to as the Alien and Sedition Acts, which was signed by John Adams in 1798 – which contributed directly to the election of Thomas Jefferson, who was completely against it. On July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, Adams died – unaware that Jefferson had died several hours before. Both had died FIFTY YEARS AFTER THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE ON JULY 4th. And, it is certainly true that the Eternal our God had inspired those men to write the documents they did that have given me and you and all of us – including our peoples in Canada, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and her Commonwealth of Nations – the innumerable blessings we have today, and certainly anyone else can THANK GOD for the great blessings they also have!

But, certainly, God Almighty’s hand was upon these men.

Now, friends, instead of our children learning that George Washington was a slave owner, and Thomas Jefferson had a black mistress – they should be taught the quality of character of these men and what they accomplished – and you can certainly say, THESE WERE GREAT MEN – who wrote the following –
“When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, …”
The right to life. In 1973, our government passed a law in which the Court ruled that the Constitution of the United States protects a pregnant woman's right to choose to have an abortion – which means that millions of unborn babies DID NOT have the right to life. And this is a heinous, vile, and evil law that should be overturned.
“ … Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.”
It also lists a history of repeated injuries and usurpations which King George III had placed upon them, and I’ll list a few here –
“He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

“He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.”
And they ended this IMPORTANT document with –
“We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.”
And indeed they did! □


1) Freedom of Religions In China, Retrieved 4 Dec. 2021.
2) Bennett, W.H., The Story of Celto-Saxon Israel, The Covenant Publishing Company, © 2002.
3) Encyclopedia of Death and Dying, Widow-Burning, Retrieved 6 Dec. 2021.
4) Nwabueze, C., Sati: The Practice of Widow Burning Still Exists in Modern India, Mass Media, 23 July 2021. Retrieved 6 Dec. 2021.
7) Agarwal, S., Is India really open-defecation-free? Here’s what numbers say, DownToEarth, 13 July 2021. Retrieved 6 Dec. 2021.
8) France has had 7 major regimes: Bourbon Monarchy, First Republic, Second Republic, Third Republic, Vichy Regime, Fourth Republic, and the current Fifth Republic.
9) Dear, Ian; Foot, M. (2005). The Oxford Companion to World War II. London: Oxford University Press. pp. 316.
Frieser, Karl-Heinz (2005). The Blitzkrieg Legend: The 1940 Campaign in the West. Translated by Greenwood, J. T. (eng. trans. ed.). Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. pp. 29.
10) Penrose, J., The D-Day Companion, The National D-Day Museum New Orleans, pp. 84.
12) Annual Report 2011 Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine, Port of Amsterdam, 2012. Retrieved 6 Dec. 2021.
13) Countrystudies, Finland and the Swedish Empire, Retrieved 6 Dec. 2021.
14) Kinealy, Christine (1994), This Great Calamity, Gill & Macmillan, pp. xv.
15) James Lardner, and Thomas Reppetto. NYPD: A City and Its Police. (2000).

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